Essential Oils for healing and magical properties

BERGAMOT (CITRUS BERGAMIA)

Uplifting, refreshing and relaxing. Encourages cheerful emotions and ideal for depression. Its delicate, sweet aroma can also be used to freshen and uplift a room. Citrus Bergamia is a small tree about 4.5m high with smooth oval leaves. It belongs to the same family as the orange tree. The essential oil comes from the small round fruits which ripen from green to yellow, similar to oranges in appearance.
Distribution

Native to Morocco and tropical Asia it is grown commercially in the Ivory Coast and is extensively cultivated in Southern Italy. It was first cultivated around Bergamo, from where it takes its name.

History / Traditions

The fruit has been used for hundreds of years in Italian folk medicine. However the fruit was unknown outside Italy and wasn’t exported until recent times. The oil was primarily used for the treatment of fever and intestinal worms.

Extraction

The essential oil is produced by cold expression of the peel of the nearly ripe fruit. Although many oils are produced by mechanical processes, the best quality oil is produced by hand.

General Description

The oil is a light greenish yellow liquid with an uplifting citrus aroma and balsamic overtones. On aging the oil turns to a brownish olive color. The oil is known to have about 300 components the main being linalyl acetate 30-60%; linalol 11-22% and other alcohols, sesquiterpenes, terpenes, alkanes, and furocoumarins 0.3-0.39%

Aromatherapy uses

Bergamot oil has a strong affinity for the urinary tract and is valuable in the treatment of cystitis and urethritis. It should be used in the bath or as a local wash at a 1% dilution. In helping with mental and psychological states, Bergamot is most valuable for its uplifting effects. For tension anxiety or depression, bergamot should be used in a massage oil or in a dally bath. The fragrance blends well with lavender, neroli, jasmine, geranium, chamomile, lemon, cypress and juniper. bergamot can be used in the treatment of tensions causing dietary problems such as over and under eating. The antiseptic qualities of Bergamot make it ideal for the treatment of skin complaints such as acne, oily skin and all infections of the skin. Bergamot is cooling in feverish conditions and has effective insect repellent properties. Bergamot has an inhibiting effect on certain viruses, in particular Herpes simplex 1 which causes cold sores. Bergamot will also reduce the pain of shingles and ease chicken pox in small children. Bergamot is used extensively as a fragrance and is also found in toiletries and cologne.

Safety data

Certain furocumarins (including bergapten found in Bergamot) are photo toxic on human skin. This causes sensitivity and skin pigmentation when exposed to sunlight. Therefore exercise caution when using Bergamot in sunny weather. Bergamot should never be used undiluted on the skin. Severe burning may result.

CEDARWOOD (JUNIPERUS VIRGINIANA)

With a dry woody aroma, this oil is ideal for soothing, harmonizing and focusing the mind. Antiseptic and astringent properties are beneficial to oily skin. Cedarwood oil was possibly the first essential oil to be extracted from a plant and was used by the Egyptians in the mummification process, they also valued it highly as an ingredient for cosmetics and impregnated papyrus leaves with it to protect them from insects. They used the wood to extensively to make jewelry, furniture and ships. They valued cedarwood so highly that the Lebanon area (which produced Cedrus Libani) was incorporated into the Egyptian Empire in order to ensure a regular supply.

Description

Many fragrant or sweet-smelling woods are known as cedar. But, there are actually only four species of the true cedars. They are stately evergreen trees, whose branches grow in flat tiers or layers with clusters of needle-like leaves. The evergreen tree belongs to the coniferous family and is very slow growing. They eventually reach a height of up to thirty three meters and a possible trunk diameter of one and a half meters.

The heartwood is reddish in color and the branches will bear cones. It is referred to as Red Cedar and is closely related to the yellow cedar (Thuja Occidentalis), from which thuja oil is obtained. Thuja oil is however not used in Aromatherapy due to its high content of thujone, which makes it very toxic. One of the distinguishing features of the cedars is their large barrel shaped female cones. They are green or purplish in color and are made up of overlapping scales which have claw like projections.

History / Traditions

The North American Indians used cedarwood for respiratory infections, in particular catarrh. The leaves, bark, twigs and fruit all played a crucial part in treating a variety of ailments including menstrual delay, rheumatism, arthritis, skin rashes, kidney disease and much more. It is a very powerful insect and vermin repellent and is used against mosquitoes, moths, woodworm, and rats. It has also been used with citronella as a commercial insecticide.

Extraction

Production is through steam distillation of the wood shaving and sawdust. Oil yields vary from 2.5% to 5%, with an average of 3.5%.

Details of Oil

It is a pale yellow color, which on rectification, gives a water-white oil. The odor is oily, woody and almost sweet, mild and pleasant. It is slightly balsamic and very reminiscent of the wood. It is an oil which is commercially viable in several forms due to the process of rectification. Light fractions have a high percentage of cedrene, whilst more common cedarwood, available on the market has the ‘typical’ cedarwood odor.

Properties

Abortifacient, Antiseborrheoic (helps control the production of sebum), Antiseptic (Pulmonary – genito – urinary) Antispasmodic, Astringent, Balsamic, Diuretic, Insecticide, Emmenagogue, Expectorant, Sedative (nervous), Stimulant (Circulatory).

Physical and Psychological Effects

Tends to be useful for long-standing complaints rather than acute ones. A combined toxic action on the glandular and nervous systems help put the body back in balance, thereby regulating homeostasis. Its main effect (due to its expectorant properties) is on the respiratory tract and may help ease bronchitis, coughs and catarrh. Excess phlegm is curbed through its drying effect. It also reduces problems concerned with the genito-urinary tract, particularly where there is burning pain. It has a tonic effect on the kidneys. The astringent and antiseptic properties are of greatest benefit to oily skin conditions It helps acne, aids in clearing scabs and pus, and chronic conditions such as dermatitis and psoriasis. It is a good hair tonic and can be effective against dandruff, alopecia and seborrhoea. Skin softening properties can be enhanced when mixed with Frankincense and Cypress. Nervous tension and anxious states benefit greatly by its soothing and calming action. It can also be effective for arthritis and rheumatism.

Blends

The oil is clear and relatively viscid. Like Sandalwood oil, it blends well with Rose, Juniper, Vetiver, Patchouli, Benzoin and Cypress. It somewhat resembles Sandalwood, but its fragrance is a bit hotter and more toxic.

Safety and Contra Indications

Externally is it fairly non-toxic, but can cause local irritation and sensitization in some people. Only used diluted and in moderation. It should be avoided during pregnancy because it is a powerful abortifacient.

Other uses

Extensively used in rooms sprays and household insect repellents. It’s pleasant aroma is released nicely when used in a burner (particularly when mixed with Sandalwood).

Components

Cedarine 26.6%, Thujopsene 18.9%, other sesquiterpene hydrocarbons 13.3%, Cedrol 31.6% and Widdol 4.8%.

CHAMOMILE (ANTHEMIS NOBILIS)

With its distinctive apple, herb aroma this oil aids sleep and soothes tired muscles. It also encourages emotional peace and calm with a gently calming effect on mind, body and emotions. An excellent oil for dry, sensitive and allergic skins.

More information coming soon

CLARY SAGE (SALVIA SCLAREA)

Deeply relaxing and euphoric. Eases feelings of depression and helps when feeling run down emotionally and physically. Contains sensual properties and has a nutty pervasive fragrance.

A perennial or biennial herb with large hairy green leaves with a hint of purple. The flowers are small and blue growing out from large pinkish bracts. Branches of these bracts radiate in pairs from a spectacular central stem often reaching 1.5 meters in height. Other members of the Sage family include garden sage (S. Officinalis) and Spanish sage (S. Lavendulaefolia)

Distribution

It is native to Southern Europe and is cultivated in the Mediterranean region, Russia, USA, England, Morocco and Central Europe. The French, English and Moroccan sage are considered to be of the best quality for perfumery work.

History / Traditions

It is believed that the word ‘Clary’ is derived from the Latin ‘clarus’ meaning clear. It was called ‘Clear eye’ in the middle ages since it was known for its ability to heal eye problems. Although it was highly esteemed in the middle ages, it has largely fallen out of use. It was used for digestive disorders, kidney disease, uterine and menstrual complaints, for cleansing ulcers and as a general nerve tonic. The mucilage from the seeds was used for treating tumors and for removing dust particles from the eyes. Like garden sage, it cools inflammation and is especially useful for throat and respiratory infections.

Extraction

The flowering tops of the plant and the leaves are used and is extracted by steam distillation. A concrete and absolute are also produced by solvent extraction in small quantities.

Details of Oil

The oil is a colorless or pale yellow/green liquid with a saturating nutty, sweet, and heady aroma. The oil blends well with juniper, lavender, geranium, sandalwood, cedarwood, pine, jasmine, frankincense, bergamot and other citrus oils. Sage oil has antispasmodic qualities and it serves as an effective relaxant and sedative. In addition, the oil is antibacterial, anticonvulsive, antiseptic, astringent, cholesterol reducing and cicatrisant.

Uses

Emotional: The oil has uplifting qualities making it suitable for the treatment of depression, anxiety, tension and mental fatigue. The oil may also prove effective in the treatment of migraine and stress related disorders.

Respiratory: The calming and anti-inflammatory qualities can help to relieve sore throats and hoarseness.

Skin: The soothing qualities make sage useful for all skin inflammations including boils and acne. Sage can help to preserve moisture in dry skin. Benefits have also been shown in treating hair loss and dandruff.

Circulatory: The calming effect of sage can help to relieve high blood pressure.

Gynecological: Sage can help to relieve P.M.S. and menstrual pain and help to establish menstrual regularity. Sage can also help to soothe swollen breasts and prevent hot flushes.

Digestive: Sage can have a calming influence on colic, cramp and dyspepsia.

Other Uses

The Oil and the absolute are used as fragrance components. The oil is also used by the food and drink industry, especially in the production of wines with a Muscatel flavor. German wine makers have used clary sage to improve the flavor of inexpensive wine.

Safety data

Avoid it use during pregnancy and use cautiously in conjunction with HRT. Alcohol should be avoided after use as the combination induce a narcotic effect which exaggerates drunkenness.

Components

Up to 75% linalyl acetate, linlol, pinene, myrcene and phellandrene. The constituents vary according to the geographical origin so there are several different chemotypes.

CYPRESS (CYPRESSUS SEMPERVIRENS)

A rich woody aroma helps to build emotional and mental resolve. An effective foot bath and deodorant. Cypress essential oil is from Cupressus sempervirens from the Cupressaceae family and is also known as Italian or Mediterranean cypress.

Oil Properties

Cypress oil has a woody, slightly spicy and refreshing masculine smell. The oil is colorless to very pale yellow in color and watery in viscosity. It has a calming and soothing effect on the nerves, is valuable as a vasoconstrictor, useful in the treatment of excessive discharge of fluids and beneficial for the respiratory tract.

Origin of Cypress oil

The Cypress is a perennial tree, conical-shaped, about 28 meters (80 feet) high. It originates from the East, now mostly found in gardens and landscapes in the Mediterranean region. The evergreen tree has dark green foliage, small flowers and round brown-gray cones with seed nuts inside. The wood is hard, durable and a red-yellow in color. The Phoenicians and Cretans used the wood for building ships and houses; the Egyptians for making sarcophagi and the Greeks used it for sculpturing statues of their gods. The Greek word ‘Sempervirens’ means ‘lives forever’. The tree gave its name to the island of Cypress where it used to be worshipped.

Extraction and Composition

Cypress oil is extracted from the needles and twigs of young branches by steam distillation and yields 1.3-1.5%. The main components of Cypress oil include: Pinene, Camphene, Terpinolene, Cymene and Sabinol. The oil is considered non-toxic, non-irritant and non-sensitizing but is best to avoid during pregnancy and is best to do a skin patch test before using it a massage blend.

Therapeutic Uses

The therapeutic properties of Cypress oil include: astringent, antiseptic, antispasmodic, diuretic, vasoconstrictor, respiratory tonic and sedative. Cypress oil has a calming and soothing effect on irritability, anger and stress. It has a valuable effect as a vasoconstrictor on varicose veins and hemorrhoids. It is beneficial in conditions of excess fluid, such as bleeding, nosebleeds, heavy menstruation, heavy perspiration, hemorrhages and fluid retention. Its antispasmodic action is very useful for asthma, whooping cough, bronchitis, emphysema and influenza. Cypress oil soothes muscular cramps, arthritis, rheumatism and is beneficial to oily skin and wounds.

Applications

Cypress oil is useful in burners and vaporizers for the following: asthma, emphysema, whooping cough and bronchitis. It can be used as a massage oil or diluted in the bath for: arthritis, asthma, cellulite, cramps, diarrhea, sweaty feet, rheumatism, heavy menstruation and menopause. When used with a carrier oil. a massage is good for relief of arthritis, asthma, cellulite, cough, cramps and varicose veins. In a cream base, Cypress oil can be used for broken veins on the skin, as well as a greasy skin. Used diluted on a cold compress as a very good treatment for a nosebleed.

EUCALYPTUS (EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS)

The well known aroma is stimulating and cleansing, especially in the winter months. It is a powerful, penetrating bactericidal and anti-viral oil. Often used in hospitals and to aid the sick. Eucalyptus essential oil is extracted from Eucalyptus globulus from the Myrtaceae family and is also known as Tasmanian blue gum or blue gum.

Oil properties

Eucalyptus has a clear, sharp, fresh and very distinctive smell. It is pale yellow in color and watery in viscosity.

Origin of Eucalyptus oil

The Australian Blue Gum can sometimes reaches a height of 100 meters (300 feet), making it one of the highest trees in the world. There are over 500 species of Eucalyptus trees and they have blue-green long, narrow, tough leaves, creamy white flowers and smooth pale bark. The ‘eu’ and ‘kalypto’ means ‘well’ and ‘covered’ in Greek, referring to the cup-like membrane that covers the flower bud and is thrown off as the flower expands. The Australian Aborigines calls the Eucalyptus ‘kino’. One of their uses for it was to cover serious wounds with the leaves. Eucalyptus was introduced to Europe in 1788 and the first oil exported to England was called ‘Sydney peppermint’. It was extracted from Eucalyptus peperita which is a more industrial type of oil.

Extraction and Chemical Composition

Eucalyptus oil is extracted from the fresh or partially dried leaves and young twigs. The main chemical components of Eucalyptus are: Camphene, Citronellal, Fenchene, Phellandrene and Cineole. Eucalyptus oil is should be uses with care and people with high blood pressure and epilepsy should avoid it. Excessive use of the oil may cause headaches.

Therapeutic Uses

The therapeutic properties of Eucalyptus oil include: analgesic, anti-rheumatic, anti-neuralgic, anti-spasmodic, antiseptic, balsamic, decongestant, deodorant, diuretic, expectorant, insecticide, rubefacient and stimulant. Eucalyptus has a cooling and deodorizing effect on the body, helping with fevers, migraine and malaria. For the respiratory tract, it helps with coughs, asthma, throat infections, sinusitis and catarrhal conditions. It soothes inflammation and eases mucus, clearing the head from the stuffiness of colds and hay fever. Eucalyptus oil is useful as a warming oil when used for muscular aches and pains, rheumatoid arthritis, sprains and poor circulation. In skin care it can be used for burns, blisters, herpes, cuts, wounds, skin infections and insect bites. Eucalyptus oil can boost the immune system and is helpful especially in cases of chicken pox, colds, flu and measles. Eucalyptus oil is very helpful when used on headaches, fevers, on the respiratory tract, muscular aches and pains and in skin care. It has a soothing and calming effect on the whole body and helps with the immune system. The oil is also effective against bacteria, especially staphylococci.

Applications

In burners and vaporizers, Eucalyptus oil is used for frequent sneezing, hay fever, flu, respiratory problems and as insect repellant. The oil can be used in blended massage oil or diluted in the bath to assist with arthritis, asthma, bronchitis, mucous congestion, colds, headaches, rheumatism, sinusitis, catarrh, fatigue and muscular aches and pains. Eucalyptus oil can be used directly on the skin for insect bites or wounds, but care should be taken when doing so. Diluted Eucalyptus can be used as a gargle for a sore throat.

FRANKINCENSE (BOSWELLIA CARTERI)

Aids meditation, fortifies and quiets the mind. Encourages feelings of well being. A lasting and resinous aroma.

Frankincense was one of the most highly praised substances of the ancient world. It has become synonymous with the term ‘incense’. Known simply as encens (incense) in France, the English word derives from the old French ‘franc encens’ franc here meaning lavish. An excellent oil for soothing and calming. It is ideal to use for male or female treatments as its aroma is not overtly masculine or feminine.

Description

It is a small tree or shrub with abundant pinnate leaves and white or pale pink flowers. The plant has a distinctive woody, spicy aroma with a hint of lemon. The plant yields a natural oleo gum which is collected by making incisions in the bark. A milky white liquid is given off which solidifies into tear-shaped amber lumps varying in size from 1 to 4cm. Native to the Red Sea regions it grows wild throughout North East Africa. The gum is produced mainly in Somalia, China, South Arabia, and India.

History / Traditions

Frankincense has strong religious connections which continue to this day. Burnt at altars in Egypt as an offering to the gods and used to aid meditation. It was also used to fumigate the sick, the aim being to banish the evil spirits responsible for the illness. Often combined with Cinnamon, Frankincense was used to soothe aching limbs. It was highly valued almost as much as gold. The Chinese found it helpful in the treatment of Scrofula (Tuberculosis of the lymph glands) as well as Leprosy.

Extraction

The oil is derived by steam distillation from selected oleo gum resin. (approx.3- 10% oil to 60 – 70% resin). An absolute is also produced for use as a fixative.

Details of Oil

The oils has a base note and a long lasting aroma. Its color is pale yellow to green and is fairly fluid. The whitish gum has to be dissolved and distilled to produce the essential oil

Properties

Antiseptic, Astringent, Carmative, Cicatrisant, Cytophylactic, Digestive, Diuretic, Sedative, Tonic, Utherine, Vulnerary.

Physical Effects

It has a pronounced effect on the mucous membranes and is particularly helpful in clearing the lungs. Very good for respiration and it eases breathing, therefore useful for asthma sufferers. A good remedy for catarrhal conditions and it regulates secretions. It has a soothing action on head colds, coughs, bronchitis and laryngitis.

Because of its action on the genito-urinary tract, it may have a beneficial effect on cystitis, nephritis and genital infections. It also has astringent properties which may help uterine hemorrhages and heavy periods. Its calming action is said to be of value during labor, for breast inflammation, and post-natal depression. Digestive problems may also be relieved.

The excellent astringent properties make it an excellent tonic for the skin. Frankincense helps rejuvenate mature complexions, smoothes wrinkles and helps to balance oily skin conditions. Also effective for ulcers, scar tissue, wounds and inflammation.

Psychological Effects

It has a calming effect and slows the breathing. Produces feelings of calmness and tends to bring about an elevating, soothing effect on the mind. Its comforting action is helpful for anxious and obsessive states linked to the past.

Blends

Blends well with Basil, Geranium, Black Pepper, Grapefruit, Lavender, Melissa, Patchouli, Pine, and Sandalwood.

Safety

A very safe oil, non-toxic, non-irritating, and non-sensitizing. Always needs to be diluted and is used for external use only.

Other uses

The gum and oil are used as fixatives and fragrance components in soaps, cosmetics and perfumes. It is especially common is oriental, spice and men’s fragrances. Also found in liniments and throat pastilles. Extensively used in the manufacture of incense and used in minute amounts in some foods.

GERANIUM (PELARGONIUM GRAVELOENS)

Sustaining, relaxing and restoring. It has a strong strengthening effect, balances emotions, raises energy reserves while soothing the mind and body. Balances sebum and is therefore suitable for all skin types. Has a penetrating floral perfume.

There are several aromatic pelargoniums. This particular variety grows to about two feet high and has serrated, pointed leaves with small pink flowers. The whole plant is aromatic. It is found on waste land, in hedgerows and on the outskirts of woods. There are several oil producing species, but pelargonium gravelolens is the main one commercially cultivated for its oil. It is native to South Africa and widely cultivated in Russia, Egypt, Congo, Japan, Central America and Europe.

History / Traditions

It was used by the ancients as a remedy for wounds and tumors. The essence is clear to light green with a delightful scent. The British plant geranium robertianum and the American cranesbill geranium maculatum are the most widely used types in herbal medicine today.

Extraction

Essential oils are extracted by steam distillation from the leaves, stalks and flowers. An absolute and concrete are also produced in Morocco.

Details of Oil

Non-toxic, non-irritant, and generally non-sensitizing. Possible contact dermatitis in hypersensitive individuals, especially with the bourbon type oil. Geranium blends well with lavender, patchouli, clove, rose, sandalwood, jasmine, juniper, neroli, bergamot and other citrus oils. The bourbon oil is a greenish-olive liquid with a rosy-sweet, minty scent. The bourbon oil is generally preferred in perfumery work.

Properties

It is a mild analgesic and sedative. It may be used for neuralgia and where there is pain of perhaps more nervous that physical origin. As an analgesic-cicatrisant-antiseptic, it is an excellent and effective remedy for burns. Geranium can be used in the treatment of inflammation, due to its mild, soothing effect. The action on the nervous system is pronounced, being a sedative with uplifting characteristics. It is a stimulant of the adrenal cortex and can be used to balance the production of androgens or octoroons, such as occurs during the menopause. Geranium is a good insecticide due to its terpine content and is specifically effective as a mosquito repellent. It can also be used in the treatment of lice and ringworm. Geranium has great value in skin care and can be used on almost any type of skin.

Other Uses

Used as a fragrance in all kinds of cosmetic products including soaps, creams, and perfumes. It is extensively used as a flavoring agent in most major food categories, alcoholic beverages and soft drinks.

Components

Citronellol geraniol, linalol, isomenthone, menthone, phellandrene, sabinene.

GRAPEFRUIT (CITRUS PARADISI)

Refreshing and reviving, especially when feeling down. This oil clears the mind and uplifts the spirits. A sharp, clear citrus fragrance. Grapefruit oil is extracted from Citrus paradisi (a.k.a. Citrus racemosa amd C. maxima var. racemosa) from the Rutaceae family and is also known as shaddock.

Oil properties

Grapefruit essential oil has a sharp refreshing aroma, is pale yellow and the viscosity is watery. Like all citrus oils, grapefruit oil should be used within six month of purchase. The origin of grapefruit oil Originally from Asia, it is now cultivated in the USA, Brazil and Israel. Grapefruit is a glossy-leaved tree, about 10 meters (30 feet) high, with white flowers and large, pale yellow fruit. The oil glands are imbedded deep within the peel and yield a small amount of essential oil.

Extraction and Chemical Composition

Grapefruit essential oil is extracted from the fresh peel by cold compression and yields 0.5-1%. The main chemical components are: Paradisiol, Limonene, Gamma Terpinene, Nootketone, Cadinene, Neral and Citronellal. Grapefruit oil is non-toxic, non-irritant, non-sensitizing and although listed as non-phototoxic it can irritate the skin if exposed to strong sunlight after treatment.

Therapeutic Uses

Some of the therapeutic properties of Grapefruit oil are: antidepressant, antiseptic, aperitif, diuretic, disinfectant, lymphatic stimulant, tonic and anti-infectious. Grapefruit has a high vitamin C content and is therefore valuable to the immune system. It helps protect against colds and flu. It has an effect on obesity; its diuretic properties help with water retention and cellulite. Grapefruit oil is used in cases of muscle fatigue and stiffness. It has a helpful effect on congested oily skin and acne; it tones the skin and tissues, and promotes hair growth. It is valuable in cases of stress, depression and nervous exhaustion, as well as headaches. Grapefruit oil has great benefits for the immune system, it helps with skin problems, and can be used for muscle stiffness, water retention and for the nervous system.

Applications

In burners and vaporizers, grapefruit oil can be used for hangovers, headaches, over indulgence and mental tiredness. Grapefruit oil can be used in blended massage oil or diluted in the bath to assist with: cellulite, colds and flu, lack of energy, jet lag, muscle fatigue, overweight, headaches, moodiness and mental and physical tiredness. Used in a base cream, lotion or as a wash, Grapefruit oil can be used for a greasy, congested and acne skin.

JASMINE (JASMINUM OFFICINALE)

The heady, exotic perfume uplifts and nurtures as well as boosting confidence. An emotionally warming sensual oil. Helpful for post-natal recovery and a good skin tonic. Jasmine essential oil is extracted from either Jasminum officinale, both from the Oleaceae family and is also known as jasmin, jessamine and common jasmine.

Oil properties

Jasmine essential oil has a sweet, exotic and rich floral smell and the oil is deep orange-brown in color. Origin of jasmine oil Jasmine is an evergreen fragile climbing shrub that can grow up to 10 meters (33 feet) high. It has dark green leaves and small white star-shaped flowers, which are picked at night when the aroma is most intense. An experienced picker can pick 10,000-15,000 blossoms per day. Originally from China and Northern India, brought to Spain by the Moors and the Mediterranean with France, Italy, Morocco, Egypt, China, Japan and Turkey producing the best essential oil now. The name Jasmine is derived from the Persia ‘yasmin’. The Chinese, Arabians and Indians used Jasmine medicinally, as an aphrodisiac and for ceremonial purposes. In Turkey, the wood is used for making rope stems. Jasmine tea is a Chinese favorite, but Jasminum sambac (Arabian jasmine) is normally used for this. It is used in Indonesia as a popular garnish.

Extraction and Chemical Composition

In manufacturing, Jasmine oil is produced as a ‘concrete’ by solvent extraction, and an absolute is obtained from the concrete by separation with alcohol, and an essential oil is produced off the absolute by steam distillation. 1,000 lbs of flowers yield approximately one pound of liquid concrete, which yields 0.2% aromatic molecules. The main chemical components of Jasmine oil are: Benzyl, Nerol, Terpineol, Linalyl acetate, Methyl anthranilate, Jasmone and Farnesol. Jasmine oil is non-toxic, non-irritant and generally non-sensitizing, although some people do have an allergic reaction to the oil. As Jasmine oil is used to ease labor as well as an emmenagogue, it should not be used during pregnancy. It can impede concentration, so should be used with care.

Therapeutic Uses

The therapeutic properties of Jasmine oil include: anti-depressant, aphrodisiac, anti-spasmodic, antiseptic, stimulant and emollient. It is a valuable remedy in cases of severe depression. It soothes the nerves and produces a feeling of confidence, optimism and euphoria. It revitalizes and restores energy. Jasmine oil facilitates delivery in childbirth: it hastens the birth by strengthening the contractions and at the same time relieves the pain. It is effective in post-natal depression and promotes the flow of breast milk. Because of its soothing and calming nature, Jasmine oil helps with sexual problems such as impotence, premature ejaculation and frigidity. In the respiratory system it also soothes irritating coughs and helps with hoarseness and laryngitis. It helps with muscle pain, sprains, and stiff limbs. Jasmine tones dry, greasy, irritated and sensitive skin, increases elasticity and is often used to assist with stretch marks and scarring. Jasmine is a very valuable oil and is used for severe depression, for childbirth, sexual problems, on the respiratory tract, for muscle pain and for toning the skin.

Applications

In vapor therapy Jasmine oil can be useful for addiction, depression, nervousness, coughs, relaxation and tension. Jasmine oil can be used as a blended massage oil or diluted in the bath for: addiction, postnatal depression, relaxation, muscle pain, coughs, tension, stress and nervousness. Jasmine oil can be used in a base cream or lotion for dry or greasy and sensitive skin, as well as assisting with stretch marks and scars.

JUNIPER BERRY (JUNIPERUS COMMUNIS)

Purifying and eliminating with a clear woody aroma. This oil clears emotional overload and helps to cleanse the body of impurities. A great tonic for oily or congested skin.

The genus juniperus contains more than 70 species of aromatic evergreens. The species most widely used in healing is common juniper and grows 6-20ft high. Its tangled spreading branches are covered with reddish brown bark, sticky gum and pointed half inch bluish-green needles.

The male plant produces yellow flowers and the females green flowers. The females also produce scaly, green quarter inch aromatic cones (berries) that turn blue-black during their two year maturation. Immature and mature berries are produced simultaneously but it is only the mature ones which are harvested. They are dried in the sun until they turn black and stored in airtight containers to preserve the volatile oil. The potency of the berries varies according to the region in which they were grown.

Two types of essential oils are distilled from this shrub. Juniper berry oil is the better quality and the one recommended for therapeutic use. A cheaper and less effective alternative is juniper oil which includes the berries, leaves and branches. Occasionally a poorer quality juniper oil is produced by adding berries that have been partially distilled in the making of Gin. Both types are sometimes sold under the name of ‘Juniper Berry Oil’.

History / Traditions

Juniper has a long tradition of use. It was used by the ancient Egyptians and Greeks to ward off infections as well as being used as part of the embalming process. They also used juniper berries for a variety of medical purposes including flatulence and indigestion. During the middle ages, Europeans believed planting a juniper bush beside the front door kept witches out. Unfortunately this did not work if the witch could correctly guess the number of needles on the bush. Junipers protective reputation evolved into the belief that its smoke prevented leprosy and bubonic plague. As recently as the Second World War, French nurses burnt juniper springs in hospital wards to fumigate them. The essential oil was used in body massage to treat fever and smallpox. By the 17th century, juniper was discovered to be a powerful diuretic. In the 19th century, the Americans dismissed the use of juniper in childbirth but endorsed it strongly for congestive heart disease. They also prescribed it externally for eczema and psoriasis and internally for gonorrhea, bladder and kidney infections. Contemporary herbalists recommend juniper externally as an antiseptic and internally for bladder infections, arthritis, intestinal cramps, and gout.

Extraction

The essential oil is obtained by steam distillation.

Details of Oil

Juniper oil is colorless to pale yellow when freshly distilled but grows darker and thicker with age. The fresh woody aroma is similar to cypress, but sharper and more peppery.

Properties

Antirheumatic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antitoxic, aphrodisiac, astringent, carminative, cicatrisant, depurative, diuretic, nervine, emmenagogue, parasiticide, rebefacient, sedative, stomachic, sudorific, tonic and vulnerary.

Physical Effects

Circulatory: Stimulant and diuretic, helps to lower blood pressure, cleanses the body, strengthens the kidneys, and relieves fluid retention. Also used for cellulite, varicose veins and hemorrhoids.

Genito-Urinary: Diuretic, helpful for irregular or painful menstruation, invaluable when breasts are swollen during menstruation.

Digestive: Antiseptic, relieves indigestion, flatulence, diarrhea and colic. Cleanses the liver after too much rich food and alcohol.

Immune system: Colds, flu and infections.

Muscular: Tonic and stimulant, useful for muscular aches and pains and rheumatism.

Skin: Astringent and cleansing, beneficial for acne, oily skin, greasy hair, dandruff, hair loss, weeping eczema and wounds.

Emotional: Calming and a tonic, helpful in overcoming anxiety, insomnia and mental fatigue.

Blends

It blends well with frankincense, rosemary, sandalwood, cedarwood, cypress, clary sage, pine, lavender and geranium.

Contra Indications

Juniper is an abortifacient and must not be used during pregnancy. High doses of juniper causes kidney irritation and possible kidney damage. Therefore it should not be used by anyone with kidney infections or a history of kidney impairment.

Other uses

The berries and extracts are used in diuretic and laxative preparations. It is also used in veterinary medicine to prevent ticks and fleas. Juniper is common as a fragrance component of soaps, detergents, cosmetics and perfumes (especially spicy fragrances and aftershaves). It is also used extensively in many food products, alcoholic beverages and soft drinks. In Holland, its use in Gin making dates back to the 17th century.

Components

Cedarine 26.6%, Thujopsene 18.9%, other sesquiterpene hydrocarbons 13.3%, Cedrol 31.6% and Widdol 4.8%. Terpenes: Camphene, pinene, limonene, myrcene, sabinene. Sesquiterpines: Caryophllene, cadinene, elemene. Alcohols: Borneol, terpineol.

LAVENDER (LAVANDULA OFFICINALIS)

Clear light flowery aroma, versatile oil for relaxing and balancing for mind and body. Aids sleep, soothes tired muscles, benefits the immune system, and encourages stillness and tranquility. Has some antiseptic qualities and is useful for the skin. True Lavender oil is extracted from Lavandula angustifolia (a.k.a. L. officinalis, L. spica and L. vera) from the Lamiaceae (Labiatae) family and is also known as garden, common or English lavender.

Oil properties

Lavender essential oil has a light fresh aroma, is clear in color and watery in viscosity. Lavandula angustifolia is further divided into two subspecies – L. delphinensis and L. fragrans. Due to the variances in lavender oil, we sell a lavender oil, marketed as Lavender SPP, which is a 100% standardized mix of the different variants of lavender. Lavender is an evergreen woody shrub about 1 meter high (3 feet), with gray-green narrow linear leaves and the most beautiful purple-blue flowers perched on a long stem. A few varieties of Lavenders grow wild in the Mediterranean region, but the main producer is France. The name Lavender is derived from the Latin word ‘lavera’ to wash. The Romans used Lavender frequently in their bath routine, and it is said to been have introduced by them into England, where it soon was a firm favorite. Lavender was a favorite for strewing on the floor since it released an aroma when walked upon. It is used in toilet water, as an insecticide placed between linen and to clean wounds.

Extraction and Chemical Composition

Lavender oil is extracted from the flowering tops by steam distillation and yields 1.4%-1.6%. The main chemical components of Lavender oil are Borneol, Geraniol, Linalool, Lavendulyl acetate, Linalyl acetate and Cineol. If the plant material from which the oil is extracted is grown at a high altitude, it normally yields more esters. Although lavender is considered one of the safest essential oils, you should discontinue use is you have any allergic reactions.

Therapeutic Uses

The therapeutic properties of Lavender oil include: Antiseptic, analgesic, anti-convulsant, anti-depressant, anti-rheumatic, anti-toxic, anti-spasmodic, anti-inflammatory, emmenagogue, anti-toxic, carminative, deodorant, diuretic, nervine, restorative, sedative, insecticide and tonic. Lavender oil has a soothing and calming effect on the nerves, relieving tension, depression, panic, hysteria and nervous exhaustion in general. It is effective for headaches, migraines and insomnia. Lavender oil is beneficial for problems such as bronchitis, asthma, colds, laryngitis, halitosis, throat infections and whooping cough. It helps the digestive system deal with colic, nausea, vomiting and flatulence. Lavender oil relieves pain when used for rheumatism, arthritis, lumbago and muscular aches and pains, especially those associated with sport. Lavender tones the skin and is useful for all types of skin problems: abscesses, acne, oily skin, boils, burns, sunburn, wounds, psoriasis, lice, insect bites, stings and as an insect repellent. Lavender is one of the few essentials oils that can be used directly on the skin and this is especially useful when treating a minor burn wound. Lavender is a very useful oil and can be effective for a variety of problems. Tt not only helps with nervous conditions, it is useful for the digestive system, the respiratory tract and skin problems, it also helps with muscle aches and pains and arthritis and rheumatism.

Applications

In vapor therapy, Lavender oil can be useful for allergies, anorexia, dizziness, sleeplessness (also in children), hay fever, headaches, depression, trauma, anxiety, hysteria, fear, nightmares, irritability, nervous tension and as an insect repellant. Lavender oil can be used as a massage oil or diluted in the bath for: abdominal pains, allergies, anorexia, arthritis, bowel disorders, fatigue, hay fever, headaches, insomnia, moodiness, trauma, anxiety, depression, hysteria, nightmares, fear, irritability, nervous tension, stress and for relaxing. Lavender oil can be used as a wash or on a cotton bud for acne, insect bites, carbuncles, bruises, chilblains, dandruff and lice. On a cold compress Lavender oil can be used for arthritis, eczema and sores.

LEMON (CITRUS LIMONUM)

Refreshes and cools bringing clarity to mind and emotions restoring vitality acting as a tonic to the circulatory system. It has beneficial effects on the immune system and is cleansing on the skin. Lemon essential oil is extracted from the Citrus limonum (a.k.a. Citrus Limon) from the Rutaceae family and is also known as cedro oil (which refers to terpeneless oil).

Oil properties

Lemon oil has a sharp, fresh smell, is pale greenish-yellow in color and is watery in viscosity. The shelf life of Lemon oil is only 8-10 months if to be used in aromatherapy, but can still be used in fragrance therapies such as vapor therapy. Origin of lemon oil A native of India, this evergreen tree grows up to about 6 meters (20 feet) and has dark green serrated oval leaves. The pink/white flowers are highly perfumed and the trees have thorns and fruit that turn from green to yellow on ripening. Lemon is derived from the Arabic ‘laimun’ or Persian ‘limun’ and was brought to Europe by the Crusaders in the Middle Ages. Lemon has a high content of vitamins A, B and C and an ounce a day was given to sailors in the Royal Navy to alleviate scurvy and other vitamin deficiencies. In Japan Lemon oil is used in diffusers in banks to reduce worker-error and is a popular flavoring agent for food and perfumes.

Extraction and Chemical Composition

Lemon oil is extracted from the fresh fruit peel by cold expression. The main chemical components of Lemon oil are: Limonene, Citronella, Phellandrene, Citral and Citroptene. Non-toxic, but can cause skin irritation and sensitizing in some individuals, and since it is a photo-toxic oil, should not be used (even in low dilution) before being exposed to the sun.

Therapeutic Uses

The therapeutic properties of Lemon oil are: anti-acid, anti-sclerotic, antibiotic, sedative, carminative, anti neuralgic, diuretic, astringent, digestive, anti-spasmodic, antiseptic, febrifuge, laxative and vermifuge. Lemon oil can be very beneficial to the circulatory system. It aids with blood flow and brings down blood pressure and also helps with nosebleeds. It can help bring down fever, helps relieve throat infections, bronchitis, asthma and flu. It helps the immune system and can be helpful in cleansing the body, it improves the functions of the digestive system, and it is helpful with constipation, dyspepsia and cellulite. Lemon oil can soothe and relieve headaches and migraines and it can be helpful for rheumatism and arthritis and is useful in helping to clear up acne, cleaning greasy skin and hair, as well as removing dead skin cells. Lemon oil eases painful cold sores, mouth ulcers, herpes and insect bites. Lemon oil helps to fight against infections, aids the digestive system, soothes headaches, migraines and muscular problems, and clears greasy skin and hair.

Applications

In burners and vaporizers, Lemon oil can be used for colds, voice loss, flu, depression, stress, lack of energy and fatigue. It can be used in blended massage oils or diluted in the bath to assist with: digestive problems, lack of energy, fatigue, infections, flu, obesity, overweight, rheumatism, depression, stress and as a general tonic. Lemon oil can be used in a base cream, in a lotion or as a mouthwash, for mouth ulcers and throat infections and for oily skin.

LIME (CITRUS AURANTIFOLIA)

An uplifting, energizing oil with a sweet fragrance. Uplifts and restores vigour aiding recovery during convalescence. Has an astringent tonic action on the skin. Lime oil is extracted from Citrus aurantifolia (a.k.a. Citrus medica var. acida and C. latifolia) from the Rutaceae family and also known as Mexican and West Indian lime as well as sour lime.

Oil properties

Lime oil has a sharp, citrus peel smell and is pale yellow to light olive in color. Origin of lime oil Originally from Asia, Limes are now cultivated in mostly warm countries, especially Italy, the West Indies and the Americas. Lime is an evergreen tree growing up to 4.5 meters (15 feet), with smooth, green leaves, stiff sharp spines and small, white flowers. The fruit is green and although there are many varieties of Lime, they usually measure about two inches in diameter. Limes were introduced into Europe by the Moors and from there to the Americas. Ships transporting Limes were called ‘lime juicers’ and ship crews depended on lime to prevent scurvy, because of the high vitamin C content found in limes and lime juice. They have been used to flavor ginger ale and cola drinks, and in the perfume industry.

Extraction and Chemical Composition

Lime oil is extracted from the peel of the unripe skin by cold expression or the whole ripe fruit by steam distillation. The cold expressed oil is much lighter and has a sweeter fragrance and is preferred by the perfume industry. Non-toxic, non-irritant and non-sensitizing if the oil is obtained by steam extraction, yet the oil obtained from cold expression can cause photosensitivity in strong sunshine and can irritate the skin.

Therapeutic Uses

The therapeutic properties of Lime oil are anti-scorbutic, antiseptic, antiviral, aperitif, bactericidal, febrifuge, restorative and tonic. Lime oil is useful to cool fevers associated with colds, sore throats and flu and aids the immune system. It eases coughs, bronchitis and sinusitis, as well as asthma. Lime oil can stimulate and refresh a tired mind and helps with depression. It can be helpful for arthritis, rheumatism and poor circulation, and in cases of obesity and cellulite. Lime has an astringent and toning action to clear oily skin and acne, as well as helps with herpes, insect bites and cuts. Lime oil can be beneficial to the immune system, it eases infection in the respiratory tract and relieves pain in muscles and joints.

Application

In vapor therapy, Lime oil can be used for depression and a tired mind. Lime oil can be used as a massage oil or diluted in the bath for painful muscles and joints, respiratory problems and cellulite.

MANDARIN (CITRUS RETICULATA)

Fruity, tangy and citrus with a gentle cheering effect. Soothing effect upon the digestive system. Can be used in pregnancy with neroli to avoid stretch marks.

A small glossy evergreen tree up to six meters high with fragrant flowers and bearing fleshy fruit.

History / Traditions

In France, Mandarin is regarded as a safe remedy for indigestion. It is also used for the elderly as it helps to strengthen the digestive system and the liver. Native to Southern China and the Far East, it was brought to Europe in 1805 and to America forty years later. The fruit takes its name from the fact that it was traditionally offered as gifts to the Mandarins.

Extraction

The essential oil is extracted by cold compression of the outer peel. A Mandarin Petitgrain oil is also produced in small quantities by steam distillation of the leaves and twigs.

Details of Oil

The essential oil has a delicate aroma true to the scent of the fruit. It is golden yellow in color with a slight blue/violet fluorescent tint in bright light. It blends well with other citrus oils, especially neroli, and spice oils such as nutmeg, cinnamon and clove.

Properties

Antiseptic, antispasmodic, carminative, digestive, diuretic, laxative, sedative, stimulant (digestive and lymhatic) tonic. A major application of Mandarin is used in treating digestive problems because of its stimulating effect on both the stomach and the liver. Its effect on the intestines is calming and has been found to be even more effective when used in synergistic combination with other citrus oils. Because of its gentle action, mandarin is often regarded in France as a children’s remedy. It is often used to treat stomach upsets, burps and hiccups.

Mandarin is one of the oils that is safe to use during pregnancy. It is also useful for treating acne, oily skin and as a treatment for fluid retention and obesity.

Other Uses

Mandarin oil is used in soaps, cosmetics, perfumes and colognes. It is also used as a flavoring agent in liqueurs, sweets and drinks.

Safety data

Non-toxic, non-irritant, non-sensitizing. Possibly photo toxic although this has not been demonstrated decisively.

Components

The major constituents are limonene, metyl methylanthraniate and small amounts of geraniol, citral and citronellal.

MARJORAM (ORIGANUM MARJORANA)

A warm and spicy aroma with comforting tones. Eases loneliness and grief, and relaxes muscles after sports or work. Aids sleep and rest. Marjoram oil is extracted from Origanum marjorana (a.k.a. Origanum hortensis) from the Labiatae family and is also known as knotted marjoram.

Oil properties

Marjoram has a warm, slightly spicy smell and is colorless to pale yellow/amber in color. It is medium in viscosity. This tender bushy perennial herb, about 60cm (24 in) high, has a hairy stem, dark green oval leaves and small white or pink flowers. Originally from the Mediterranean region, the word origanum is from the Greek word ‘orosganos’ meaning ‘joy of the mountain’. It was given to newlyweds as token of good fortune. It was a very popular herb amongst the Greeks and widely used in medicine and perfumes. The women used oil infused with Marjoram on their heads as a relaxant. In 16th century Europe Marjoram was strewn on the floor of rooms to mask unpleasant smells.

Extraction and Chemical Composition

Marjoram oil is extracted from the fresh and dried leaves and flowering tops of the plant by steam distillation. The yield is 0.5-3%. The main chemical composition of Sweet Marjoram oil is: Borneol, Terpinene, Pinene, Sabinene and Terpineol. Marjoram oil is non-toxic, non-irritant and non-sensitizing but should not be used during pregnancy.

Therapeutic Uses

The therapeutic properties of Marjoram oil are: analgesic, anti-spasmodic, anaphrodisiac, antiseptic, carminative, cordial, digestive, expectorant, emmenagogue, laxative, nervine, tonic and vulnerary. Marjoram is a warming oil and very good for the emotions. It comforts and relaxes the nervous system and relieves anxiety and stress and helps to calms hyperactive people. Marjoram is a muscle relaxant and helps with rheumatic aches and pains, swollen joints and painful muscles. It soothes the digestive system and helps with cramps, indigestion, constipation and flatulence. It has a beneficial action on colds, sinusitis, bronchitis and asthma. As a general relaxant Marjoram oil is used for headaches, migraines and insomnia. Although it is said to quell sexual desires, it is useful in regulating the menstrual cycle and relieving painful periods. Marjoram oil can be beneficial in cases of nervous tension, respiratory congestion, painful muscles and joints, digestive problems and menstrual disorders.

Applications

In burners and vaporizers, Marjoram oil can be useful for: asthma, bronchitis, poor circulation, coughs, physical exhaustion, headaches, tension, insomnia, sinusitis, anxiety, nervous tension, stress and to calm. As a blended oil or diluted in the bath Marjoram oil can be used for: asthma, arthritis, back pain, bronchitis, poor circulation, colds, coughs, detoxification, physical exhaustion, fatigue, headaches, tension, heartburn, insomnia, painful periods, migraine, muscular pains and spasms, rheumatism, sinusitis, anxiety, stress and to calm.

NEROLI (CITRUS AURANTIUM)

A lingering bitter sweet aroma and is very relaxing and soothing. Brings feelings of peace serenity. Good for ageing, dry, or sensitive skin. It can be balancing in times of shock and hysteria. Neroli oil is extracted from the flowers of Citrus aurantium var. amara (a.k.a. Citrus vulgaris and C. Bigardia) from the Rutaceae family and is also known as orange flower and Neroli bigarade.

Oil properties

Neroli oil has a sweet, floral and slightly haunting aroma, the color is pale yellow and the viscosity is watery. Most neroli oil that is sold worldwide is really not pure neroli oil, since the cost of this oil is high. Our neroli oil is sold as a 20% blend, which is a higher concentration than what is normally sold as “pure neroli oil” by some companies. This essential oil is also known as ‘orange blossom’ and it takes about 1000 lbs. of orange blossoms to make 1 lb. of Neroli oil. The name Neroli is said to originate from the Italian princess, Anne-Marie de la Tremoille, Countess of Nerola, who used the oil as a perfume and to scent her bathwater and gloves. The orange petals were used in China in the making of cosmetics and are still an ingredient for making traditional smelling Eau-de-cologne. Orange petals are often associated with marriage, purity and brides who traditionally wore it in their hair.

Extraction and Chemical Composition

Neroli oil is extracted from the small, white, waxy flowers of the bitter-orange tree by steam distillation. The yield is 0.8-1%. The main chemical components are Pinenes, limonene, Linalyl acetate, Linalol, Nerolidol, Nerol, Geraniol and Citral. Neroli oil is non-toxic, non-sensitizing, non-irritant and non-phototoxic yet do not use it when a sharp clear head is needed, as it can be very relaxing.

Therapeutic Uses

The therapeutic properties of Neroli oil are antidepressant, antiseptic, anti-infectious, carminative, digestive, sedative and tonic. Neroli oil is very relaxing and can relieve chronic anxiety, depression, fear, shock and stress and its calming effect can also be beneficial to the digestive tract for intestinal spasms, colitis and diarrhea. It can be useful in cases of insomnia, headaches, neuralgia and vertigo and can help when a patient is convalescing and is generally a good tonic. Neroli oil can help with the regenerating of skin cells and is useful for scar tissue, skin care and stretch marks. Neroli oil not only smells exquisite, but can also relax and calm the nervous system, the digestive tract and is helpful in skin care.

Applications

In burners and vaporizers, Neroli oil can be useful for insomnia, nervous tension, headaches, vertigo and depression. As a blended oil or diluted in the bath Neroli oil can assist with: insomnia, headaches, neuralgia, nervous tension, anxiety, depression, colitis and diarrhea.

PALMAROSA (CYMBOPOGON MARTINI)

Refreshing and uplifting. Gently soothing while promoting clear thought. Helps all skin types and is especially useful for dry skin. Light floral aroma. Palmarosa oil is extracted from Cymbopogon martini (a.k.a. Cymbopogon martinii var. martinii) from the Gramineae family and also known as East Indian and Turkish geranium as well as Indian rosha and motia.

Oil properties

Palmarosa oil has a sweet floral with a hint of rose smell and is pale yellow in color. The viscosity is medium to watery. Origin of palmarosa oil Palmarosa is a wild growing herbaceous green and straw-coloured grass with long slender stems with terminal flowering tops and fragrant grassy leaves. The grass is harvested before the flowers appear and the highest yield is obtained when the grass is fully dried about one week after it has been cut. There are two varieties of grass – motia and sofia, motia yielding the better quality oil which has a finer aroma. It is originally from India and used to be called ‘Turkish geranium oil’ or ‘East Indian geranium oil.’ Because Palmarosa oil has a rose-like smell, it is often used to adulterate rose essential oil. It is an ingredient of soaps, perfumes and cosmetics, and is used in the flavoring of tobacco.

Extraction and Chemical Composition

Palmarosa oil is extracted from the dried grass harvested before it flowers by steam distillation. The yield is 1-1.5%. The main chemical components of Palmarosa oil are Geraniol, Citronellol, Farnesol, Citral, Citronellal, Geranyl acetate, Dipentene and Limonene. Palmarosa oil has no known contra indications but care should always be taken when using essential oils.

Therapeutic Uses

The therapeutic properties of Palmarosa oil are: antiseptic, antiviral, bacteriacide, cytophylactic, digestive and febrifuge. Palmarosa oil could calm the mind and be helpful with physical and nervous exhaustion, stress-related problems and nervousness. It could be helpful during convalescence and cools the body of fever. Palmarosa oil could aid the digestive system, helps with intestinal infection, digestive atonia and anorexia nervosa. Palmarosa oil moisturizes the skin, helps to stimulate cell regeneration and is valuable to use for acne, dermatitis, and minor skin infections, scarring, sore feet and athlete’s foot. Palmarosa oil could be used with good effect on the skin, for nervous and stress-related problems and for the digestive system.

Applications

In burners and vaporizers, Palmarosa oil can help with: convalescence, fatigue, nervousness, exhaustion, stress and for relaxing. In a blended massage oil or diluted in the bath Palmarosa could assist with: convalescence, exhaustion, fatigue, nervousness, stress, eczema and relaxing. Palmarosa oil can help for scarring when used in a wash, for general skin care in a lotion or cream and directly on athlete’s foot.

PATCHOULI (POGOSTEMON CABLIN)

Deep earthy, sensual, grounding oil which uplifts the spirit whilst clearing the mind. Moisturizing for dry skin. A musky, exotic, lingering aroma. Patchouli oil is extracted from Pogostemon cablin (a.k.a. Pogostemon patchouli) from the Labiatae family and also known as patchouly and puchaput.

Oil properties

Patchouli oil has a musty-sweet, strong spicy smell and is reddish-brown in color. It is viscous in viscosity. Origin of patchouli oil Patchouli is a perennial bushy plant that grows up to 1meter (3 feet) with a sturdy, hairy stem and large, fragrant, furry leaves, about four inches long and five inches across. It has whitish flowers tinged with purple. Patchouli comes from Malaysia and India, where it is known as ‘puchaput’. Patchouli comes from the Hindustan word ‘patch’ meaning ‘green’ and ‘ilai’ meaning ‘leaf.’ It was placed between Indian cashmere shawls en route to Victorian England to protect the merchandise from moths. Without the smell of Patchouli the shawls could not be sold. In the East Patchouli is used to place between linen to keep bedbugs away, in sachets and in pot-pourri. It is Patchouli and Camphor that gives Indian ink its characteristic smell.

Extraction and Chemical Composition

Patchouli oil is extracted from the young leaves which are dried and fermented prior to steam distillation. The yield is 2-3%. Patchouli oil improves with age and gives a fuller odor. The chemical components of Patchouli oil are Patchoulol, Cardinene, Eugenol, Benzoic and Cinnamic. The oil is non-toxic, non-irritant and non-sensitizing but the smell of Patchouli oil may be a little persistent for some people and it may cause loss of appetite in some individuals.

Therapeutic Uses

The therapeutic properties of Patchouli oil are anti-depressant, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, aphrodisiac, astringent, carminative, diuretic, febrifuge, fungicide, insecticide, sedative and tonic. Patchouli oil is useful for fungal and bacterial infection; it helps for insect bites and could also be used as an insect repellant. It has diuretic properties, therefore helpful for water retention, cellulite, constipation and overweight. It has a deodorizing action, and helps when feeling hot and bothered. Patchouli oil helps to cool down inflammations and assists with wound healing, scars and sores; it gives relief from acne, eczema and scalp disorders. It can be helpful with the re-growth of skin cells and scar tissue. Patchouli oil can assist with stress related conditions and anxiety; and is also helpful in cases of substance addictions. Patchouli oil has a beneficial effect on the skin, helps for infections and insect bites, water retention and can help with stress related problems and addictions.

Applications

In burners and vaporizers, therapy Patchouli oil can be used for: overweight, anxiety and as an insect repellent. As a blended massage oil or diluted in the bath Patchouli oil can assist with: constipation, dermatitis, overweight, anxiety and dandruff. Patchouli oil can be used neat on insect bites. In a lotion or cream Patchouli oil can be used for general skin care, dermatitis, athlete’s foot, eczema, sores etc.

PEPPERMINT (MENTHA ARVENSIS)

Stimulating and penetrating. Clears the head and soothes the emotions, eases the digestive system, and relieves tired feet. A piercing menthol fragrance. Peppermint oil is extracted from Mentha piperita from the Labiatae family and is also known as brandy mint and balm mint.

Oil properties

Peppermint oil has a fresh, sharp, menthol smell, is clear to pale yellow in color and watery in viscosity. The origin of peppermint oil Peppermint is a native of the Mediterranean, but is now also cultivated in Italy, USA, Japan and Great Britain. Peppermint is a perennial herb that grows up to 1 meter (3 feet) and has slightly hairy serrated leaves with pinkish-mauve flowers arranged in a long conical shape. It has underground runners by which it easily propagates. This herb has many species, and Peppermint piperita is a hybrid of Watermint (M.aquatica) and Spearmint (M. spicata). According to Greek mythology the nymph Mentha was hotly pursued by Pluto, whose jealous wife Persephone, trod her ferociously into the ground. Pluto, however, turned her into a herb, knowing that people would appreciate her for years to come. Peppermint has been cultivated since ancient times in Japan and China; in Egypt evidence of a type of peppermint was found in a tomb dating back from 1000 BC.

Extraction and Chemical Composition

Peppermint oil is extracted from the whole plant above ground just before flowering. The oil is extracted by steam distillation from the fresh or partly dried plant and the yield is 0.1-1.0%. The chemical components of Peppermint oil are Menthol, Menthyl acetate, Carvone, Menthone, Carvacrol and Limonene. Peppermint oil is non-toxic and non-irritant in low dilutions but sensitization may be a problem due to the menthol content. It can cause irritation to the skin and mucus membranes and should be kept well away from the eyes. Peppermint oil should be avoided during pregnancy and should not be used on children under seven.

Therapeutic Uses

The therapeutic properties of Peppermint oil are analgesic, antiseptic, anti-infectious, anti-spasmodic, carminative, emmenagogue, expectorant, decongestant, digestive, stimulant, vasoconstrictor and vermifuge. Peppermint oil is excellent for mental fatigue and depression; it can help for apathy, shock, headache, migraine, nervous stress, vertigo and faintness. It is useful in general respiratory disorders as well as dry coughs, sinus congestion, asthma, bronchitis, pneumonia, tuberculosis and cholera. For the digestive system Peppermint oil can be effective for colic, cramps, dyspepsia, flatulence and nausea. It can relieve pain in cases of toothache, aching feet, rheumatism, neuralgia, muscular pains and painful periods. Peppermint oil can be useful for dermatitis, acne, ringworm, scabies and pruritus. It can relieve itching, sunburn and inflammation of the skin. Peppermint oil can assist in nervous disorders, the respiratory tract, for muscle aches and pains and for skin problems.

Applications

In burners and vaporizers, Peppermint oil can help with: coughs, headaches, nausea, mental tiredness and as an insect repellant. As a blended massage oil or diluted in the bath Peppermint oil can assist with: colic, cramps, back pain, inflamed bowel disorders, catarrh, colitis, circulation, constipation, coughs, diarrhea, sweaty and tired feet, flatulence, headaches, muscular pains, cramps and spasms, neuralgia, nausea, rheumatism and mental fatigue. A mouthwash with Peppermint oil added can help with bad breath and gum infections.

ROSE (ROSA DAMASCENA)

With a deep and luxurious floral aroma, this oil is both soothing and uplifting. It is great when sad or tired and a tonic for the female reproductive system. Truly a sensual and delightful oil, romantic, creative, and gently cheering.

A small prickly shrub growing to 1- 2 meters in height with very fragrant pink blooms. The leaves are whitish with hairs. The plant is very specific in its choice of soil and climate. It is believed to be native to the Orient. Now cultivated mainly in Bulgar, Turkey and France. Other types are also grown in China, India and Russia. India produces only rose water and Aytar, a mixture of rose otto and sandalwood.

History / Traditions

There are a number of historical traditions associated with rose. The Greeks associated the rose with Aphrodite, goddess of love, beauty, arts and creativity. Rose is seen as the supreme oil of the ‘heart chakra’, the center of love. In medieval Christian tradition, the scent of rose was associated with the presence of angels.

Extraction

The essential oil is produced by steam distillation from fresh petals. A concrete and absolute is made by solvent extraction from fresh petals.

Details of Oil

A pale yellow or olive yellow liquid with a very rich, sweet and floral scent. The oil becomes semi solid under cool conditions. The oil is non toxic, non irritant and a non-sensitizing.

Properties

Rose oil is cooling, relaxing and toning. Its effects are similar to Bergamot, Geranium and Jasmine, decreasing sympathetic nervous system activity, while strengthening the parasympathetic nervous system. Rose therefore increases feelings of vitality, creating a sense of well-being.

Rose oil can be used in the treatment of a wide range of stress related conditions and can be used for hyperactivity in children. Rose also has a strong effect on reproduction and sexuality and is helpful for menopausal women or during heavy periods. The antiseptic and anti-inflammatory properties of rose made it good for the treatment of digestive disorders such as gastroenteritis and gastric ulcers. It can help relieve feelings of nausea and help regenerate damaged intestinal walls. Rose can also be used in the treatment of skin problems. Its rejuvenating properties relieve dryness, inflammation, heat and itching of the skin.

Physical Effects

The oil is an antidepressant and counteracts inflammation. It is antiseptic, antispasmodic, an anti-tubercular agent, antiviral, astringent, bactericidal, choleratic, cicitrisant, depurative, an amenagogue, haemoststic, a regulator of appetite and a sedative. It is also a good tonic of the heart, liver, uterus and stomach.

Blends

Rose blends well with citrus oils and floral scents. Cedarwood, Coriander, Chamomile, Frankincense Sandalwood and Vanilla are all good blends.

Uses

In skin care, the oil is used for broken capillaries, conjunctivitis, dry skin, eczema and sensitive complexions. The benefits for the circulation include treatment of poor circulation, palpitations, muscles and joints. The respiratory benefits include treatment of asthma, coughs and hay fever. Digestive benefits include treatment of cholecystititis, liver congestion and nausea. Benefits for the nervous system include treatment of depression, impotence, insomnia, frigidity, headaches, nervous tension and stress related complaints.

Components

The principal constituents are Citronellol (34-55%), Geranol and Nerol (30-40%)

ROSEMARY (ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS)

A powerful mental stimulant which aids memory and concentration, restores vitality and invigorates. It is helpful when overworked and has a refreshing herb and wood fragrance.

Rosemary is a shrub like herb growing to 90cm high. Evergreen pointed, narrow leaves and small pale blue flowers distinguish this plant. It flowers in late spring and early summer. There are variegated silver and gold striped varieties but the green leaved variety is the only one used for medicinal purposes. While native to the Mediterranean region, the main oil producing countries are France, Spain and Tunisia. The plant is now cultivated worldwide in California, Russia, England, France, Spain, Portugal, the middle east, Yugoslavia, Morocco and China. Other members of the rosemary family include clary sage, basil, thyme, marjoram, mint, patchouli, myrtle and hyssop.

The name is derived from the Latin ‘ros maris’ meaning dew of the sea based on its growth close to the sea and the appearance of the blossoms from a distance.

History / Traditions

The plant was considered sacred by the Romans and was used as a decoration for statues and paintings of the gods. The Greeks also decorated statues with rosemary wreaths. The Egyptians used the plant for incense in ritual cleansing and healing and there is evidence that it was used from the earliest recorded times.

Rosemary was said to have rejuvenating properties and was used in “Hungary water”, a popular toilet water named after queen Elizabeth of Hungary. Many legends and folk tales have built up around this plant and ornaments made from rosemary were used on festive occasions as signs of love and faithfulness.

Extraction

The higher quality oil is produced by steam distillation of the leaves and the flowering tops of the plant. In Spain a lesser quality oil is produced from the whole plant. 60-70 pounds of plant material yields a pound of essential oil.

Properties of Oil

The essential oil is colorless or pale yellow. It has a strong, fresh, clear woody aroma. Poor quality oils have a strong camphoraceous note. It is an analgesic, antidepressant, antirheumatic, antieptic, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, astringent, carminative, cleansing, diuretic, fungicidal, hepatic, restorative, stimulant, tonic.

Aromatherapy Uses

The oil has a positive effect on the digestive system, helpful for indigestion, colitis and constipation. Being a liver and gall-bladder tonic, it is good for hepatic disorders. The circulatory system also benefits from the oil because it helps normalize blood pressure and helps combat hardening of the arteries. Rosemary is good for rheumatic and muscular pain, especially tired and over worked muscles. It has a warming effect on cold limbs and is helpful in the winter for rheumatism aggravated by cold. Rosemary has a stimulating effect on the nerves and is beneficial for all nervous disorders including hysteria, and paralysis.

The other benefits of rosemary include a positive effect on menstrual cramps, an excellent skin tonic, a stimulant for the scalp to encourage hair growth and provides treatment for dandruff and greasy hair. The emotional benefits of Rosemary include its ability to clear the mind and the emotions promoting mental clarity. It also provides an uplifting boost to confidence.

Safety data

Non-toxic, non-irritant (in dilution), and non-sensitizing. Rosemary should not be used during pregnancy or by epileptics. The oil should be used with caution if suffering from high blood pressure, hypertension or insomnia. Skin irritation may occur with sensitive individuals.

Components

Pinene, camphene, cineol, borneols, camaphos, resisn, saponin.

ROSEWOOD (ANIBA ROSAEODORA)

Grounding, balancing, reviving, stabilizing and comforting to the emotions. A great oil to steady the mind, and ideal for exams. Seductive floral woody perfume. Rosewood oil is extracted from Aniba rosaeaodora (a.k.a. Aniba roseaodora var. amazonica) from the Lauraceae family and also known as bios de rose and Brazilian rosewood.

Oil properties

The oil has a slightly spicy, floral and sweet smell. The origin of rosewood oil is the Brazilian evergreen tree that can grow up to 40 meters (125 feet) with reddish bark and yellow flowers. It is extensively felled in the South American rainforest but now legislation requires distilleries to plant a new tree for each tree cut down. The Rosewood tree is used for building, French cabinet making, carving, for the production of chopsticks in Japan and of course, essential oil.

Extraction and Chemical Composition

Rosewood essential oil is extracted from the wood chippings by steam distillation. The main chemical components of Rosewood oil are Geraniol, Linalool, Nerol, Cineole, Terpineol and Dipentene. Rosewood oil is non-toxic, non-irritant and non-sensitizing and generally reputed to be a safe oil.

Therapeutic Uses

Rosewood oil has the following therapeutic properties: anti-depressant, mildly analgesic, antiseptic, aphrodisiac, bacteriacide, deodorant, insecticide, stimulant and tonic. Rosewood oil may help for colds, coughs, fever and infections; it could be valuable for the immune system. As an aphrodisiac it may have an effect on sexual problems such as impotence and frigidity. Rosewood oil may be helpful for headaches, nausea, nervous tension and stress related conditions. In cases of dull, dry or oily skin, acne, dermatitis, scars, wounds and ageing skin, Rosewood oil can be effective. Although Rosewood oil is not very powerful, it has a place in aromatherapy and could help with the respiratory system, with sexual problems, with stress-related conditions and for skin care.

Applications

In burners and vaporizers, Rosewood oil can help with: colds, coughs, infections, headaches, nausea and stress-related problems. As a blended massage oil or diluted in the bath, Rosewood oil can assist with: colds, coughs, infections, headaches, fevers and nervous tension. As part of a lotion or cream Rosewood oil can be helpful for: skin care, acne, scars and wounds.

SANDALWOOD (SANTALUM ALBUM)

A relaxing and meditative oil with sensual properties, soothing and comforting to body and mind. Encourages feelings of well being. Helps ageing, dry and itchy skin. Sweet woody fragrance.

Pterocarpus santalius or santalum rubrum (red sandalwood) is solely used for coloring and dyeing. Other varieties come from the Sandwich islands, Western Australia and New Caledonia. The Australian variety (S. picatum or Eucarya spicata) produces a very similar oil but with a dry, bitter top note. The West Indian Sandalwood or Amyris (amyris balsamifera) is a poor imitation and bears no botanical relation to the East Indian sandalwood. When buying Sandalwood oil, one should make sure that it is not Australian or West Indian. Oils from these sources have little therapeutic value. Vietnam and New Caledonia have well controlled plantations of genuine Sandalwood. The best quality oil comes from the Indian province of Mysore, where the Sandalwood trees are protected by the state government.

History / Traditions

Sandalwood has an 4,000 year history documented in Sanskrit and Chinese manuscripts. The oil was used in religious rituals and many deities and temples were carved from its wood. The wood is soft to carve and offers fragrant carvings. The ancient Egyptians imported the wood and used it in medicine, embalming and ritual burning to worship the gods. The base note of this oil lingers for a long period. In India, temples built of Sandalwood centuries ago still emit the odor of this wood.

The true sandalwood (Santalum Album) is an evergreen, semi-parasitic tree native to southern Asia. The tree is medium sized, 12-15 meters, maturing at 40-50 years. This is when the center of the slender trunk has achieved its greatest oil content. The heartwood and roots are fragrant and contain the oil, the bark and sapwood are odorless. The tree has leathery leaves and small pinkish purple flowers. The trees must be at least 30 years old before it produces essential oil.

Extraction

The heartwood and roots are used for both wood and in the production of volatile oil.

Details of Oil

Once the oil has been distilled, it is matured for six months. It develops from a very pale yellow to a brownish yellow. It is extremely thick and viscous with a heavy, sweet, woody and fruity aroma.

Properties

Bitter, astringent, and slightly sweet. It is a urinary and pulmonary antiseptic, astirnging, restoring, relaxing, disinfecting, soothing, and calming.

Physical Effects

The oil is one of the main remedies in the Ayurvedic system of medicine. In Europe, it is used mostly in soaps and perfumery. Its sweet, powerful, lasting odor makes it an excellent fixative in perfume. It is usually safe for use during pregnancy and has minimal chronic toxicity. It is also an oil that can be applied undiluted as a perfume. It is non toxic, non-irritating and non-sensitizing.

Uses

The oil is a powerful urinary antiseptic. It is a pulmonary antiseptic useful in the treatment of dry, persistent coughs. The soothing of sore throats is an effective application for the oil. It also has a strong effect on other throat conditions such as laryngitis. Other uses include dry eczema, relief of itching and inflammations, sensitive skin, tension, stress, nausea, vomiting and sunstroke.

Components

The oil includes 80 to 90% terpeniod alcohols. These include alpha-santalol and beta santalol, which is a mixture of two primary sesquiterpenic alcohols. Also, santalic and teresantalic acid, aldehyde, pterocarpin and hydrocarbons, isovaleric aldehyde, santene, and santenone.

TEA TREE (MELALEUCA ALTERNIFOLIA)

An effective oil with powerful antiseptic properties. It benefits the immune system, disinfects, deodorizes, and strengthens during the winter months and convalescence. Very helpful in skin care and currently very popular for a number of uses. A tree or shrub with needle like leaves and heads of sessile pale flowers. It is native to Australia, but other varieties have been cultivated elsewhere.

Due to its unique composition, Tea Tree oil displays a number of remarkable properties making a very effective oil for a wide range of complaints. What makes Tea Tree outstanding in comparison to other remedies is that it is active against all three varieties of infectious organisms: Bacteria, Fungi and Viruses. Independent microbiological testing has confirmed the effectiveness of Tea Tree oil in fighting infection.

History / Traditions

The narrow-leafed paper bark Tea Tree is one member of an extensive botanical family, the Myrtaceae. All plants belonging to this family are aromatic because they have glandular dots in their leaves which, when crushed, release essential oils of varying amounts and constituents. There is a large group of plants in Australia known collectively as Tea Trees. The fact that the same name is commonly used to describe a very diverse and wide spread botanical group of plants has led to some confusion. Aborigines used a number of tea trees in medicine for coughs and colds. The leaves were crushed and inhaled or soaked to make an infusion. Leaf washes were applied to painful areas, sores and burns.

Extraction

Essential oil is produced by steam or water distillation from the leaves and twigs.

Details of Oil

A pale yellow-green or water-white mobile liquid with a warm fresh, spicy-camphoraceous aroma.

Aromatherapy Uses

Skin Care: Abscess, acne, athlete’s foot, blisters, burns, cold sores, dandruff, herpes, insect bites, oily skin, rashes (nappy rash), spots, verrucae, warts, wounds.

Respiratory System: Asthma, bronchitis, catarrh, coughs, sinusitis, tuberculosis, whooping cough.

Genito-urinary System: Thrush, vaginitis, cystitis, pruitis.

Immune System: Colds, fever, flu, infectious illnesses such as chicken pox.

Antiseptic / Bacterial Properties

Treatment of cuts, burns, insect bites, infected splinters and all kinds of wounds. As an antiseptic, it is valuable for general skin care, spots, acne and blackheads. As a general disinfectant, it is especially useful for respiratory or genito-urinary tract infections (i.e. bronchitis, sinusitis or cystitis).

Anti-fungal Properties: Tea Tree is an effective treatment for ringworm, athletes foot, and thrush (candida). It has also been used to combat fungal diseases affecting animals, fish and plants.

Anti-viral Properties: Viruses are the invading organisms responsible for most epidemic illnesses. As a powerful anti-viral agent, Tea Tree is effective in fighting many common infectious diseases such as measles, chicken pox, flu, cold and shingles, as well as other viral complaints (i.e. cold sores and warts).

Immuno-stimulant Properties: Tea Tree is of great value as a preventative remedy to help the body fight off all kinds of infection. Especially important if the body is already in a weakened condition brought on by either stress, illness or the use of antibiotics or other drugs which have lowered the body’s natural resistance levels. It can be helpful to those who need to build up their strength before a surgical operation or for those suffering from chronic or long standing debilitating illness. Its possible application to AIDS is also currently being researched.

Blends

Lavandin, Lavender, Clary-sage, Rosemary, Oak moss, Pine, Cananga, Geranium, Marjoram and spice oils (especially clove and nutmeg).

Safety

Non-toxic, non-irritant, possible sensitization in some individuals. The strength of Tea Tree oil should be respected and therefore large amounts should never be used undiluted on the body or in particularly sensitive areas.

Other uses

Tea tree oil is employed in soaps, toothpastes, deodorants, disinfectants, gargles, germicides and increasingly in aftershaves and spicy colognes.

Components

Terpinene-4-01 (up to 30%), cineol, pinene, terpinenes, cymene, sesquiterpenes, sespuiterpene alcohols.

THYME (THYMUS VULGARIS)

A stimulating and protecting oil that has a strengthening effect on the the nerves. Ideal for the treatment of physical and mental exhaustion, and beneficial to the immune system. Warms with its pungent herbal aroma.

A perennial evergreen shrub growing to 45cms high with a woody root and branched upright stem. The plant has small greenish oval leaves and pale purple or white flowers. The aroma is rich, powerful, sweet, warm and herbaceous with a somewhat spicy aroma. Native to Spain and the Mediterranean region, it is now found throughout Asia Minor, Algeria, Turkey, Tunisia, Israel, the USA Russia, China and central Europe. The oil is mainly produced in Spain, but also becoming common in France, Greece, Israel, Morocco, Algeria, Germany and the USA.

History / Traditions

Used by the ancient Egyptians in the embalming process and by the Greeks to fumigate against infectious diseases. Thyme was one of the earliest medicinal herbs of the Mediterranean region. The name derives from the Greek “thymos” meaning “to perfume”. It is also long established as a culinary herb.

Extraction

The essential oil is extracted by steam distillation from the fresh or partly dried leaves and flowering tops.

Details of Oil

Red thyme oil is a red, brown or orange liquid with a warm, spicy-herbaceous and powerful aroma. White thyme oil is a clear or pale yellow liquid with a sweet, green, fresh and milder scent. It blends well with bergamot, lemon, rosemary, melisa, lavender, marjoram, peru balsam and pine.

Other Uses

There are many chemotypes of thyme oil: notably the ‘thymol’ and ‘carvacol’ types (warming and active). In Western medicine, the main application has been in the treatment of digestive complaints, respiratory problems and the prevention and treatment of infection.

Muscles joints and circulation: Rheumatism, muscular aches and pains, cellulites, arthritis, sprains, anemia.

Skin: Insect bites, lice, scabies, dermatitis, eczema, cuts, bruises, acne, abscess, cellulites, gum infection, athletes foot, and wounds.

Respiratory: Asthma, bronchitis, catarrh, coughs, laryngitis, sinusitis, sore throat, tonsillitis, flu, whooping cough, and throat infections.

Digestive system: Diarrhoea, dyspepsia, and flatulence.

Genito-urinary system: Cystitis and urethritis.

Immune system: Infectious diseases, staphylococcus, physical an psychological weakness.

Nervous system: Headaches, insomnia, nervous debility, neurasthenia and stress related complaints. Helps to revive the body and the mind.

Reproductive system: Vaginitis

Usage

The oil can be used as a massage oil (diluted with a carrier), as an inhalation, in a diffuser or vaporizer.

Safety data

Thymus Vulgaris is a skin irritant in high concentration. It should not be used with epileptic conditions, hyperthyroidism, high blood pressure or during pregnancy (because it is a euterine stimulant). Red thyme oil, serpolet (from wild thyme), ‘thymol’ and ‘carvacrol’ type oils all contain quite large amounts of toxic phenols (carvacol and thymol). They can irritate mucous membranes, cause dermal irritation and may cause sensitization in some individuals. Use in moderation and in low dilution. They are best avoided during pregnancy. Lemon Thyme and ‘linalol’ types are in general less toxic, non-irritating and with less possibility of sensitization. Safe for use on the skin and with children.

Components

Thymol and cavacrol (up to 60%) cymene, camphene, borneol, linalol. Depending upon the source, it can also contain geraniol, citral and thuyanol.

YLANG YLANG (CANANGA ODORATA)

An exotic and sensual oil with relaxing qualities. Soothes and uplifts and has a regulating effect on excited and nervous conditions. Good for both oily and dry skin. Sweet heady floral aroma. This plant is native to tropical Asia and is produced from the flowers of the Annonaceae family. The oil is grown commercially in Madagascar, the Philippines and Reunion islands. The essential oil is produced from the flowers year round. These flowers are yellow and star shaped in form.

Extraction of the oil

Four grades of oil are available reflecting the distillation process and can produce inconsistent standards. The oil is graded into four grades or distillations with ‘extra’ being the finest.

Properties

Ylang Ylang is a deeply relaxing fragrance with a long tradition of use in men’s fragrances. The oil also has a balancing effect allowing strong emotions to be moderated. The oil also has a rejuvenating effect upon skin and hair. Good quality Ylang Ylang will have a smooth aroma which is not overly strong and which lacks the thick, dominant sweetness of some distillations.

Usage

Ylang Ylang is used for its calming effects. A few drops in a massage oil or a soothing bath brings great soothing benefits. Ylang Ylang is best used in moderation. When blended, the oil requires from some time to mature and develop. Blended oils benefit from a lower dilution of Ylang than with many other essential oils.